As a part of New Global research, Erika Forstén recently finished her master’s thesis on urban energy transitions in emerging markets. The aim of the thesis was to identify the main urban energy challenges and barriers for the transition to a sustainable urban energy system in Nairobi. A literature review was conducted on socio-technical transitions in urban energy systems along with the challenges and barriers associated with them. The empirical data for the qualitative case study was collected mainly through semi-structured interviews during a field research period.
Over a half of all electricity generated in Kenya is consumed in Nairobi, where the urban population and its energy needs are increasing. The study found that the main urban energy challenges in Nairobi are the unreliability and inefficiency of electricity supply, high cost of electricity and pollution resulting from the use of unsustainable fuels. Barriers hindering the transition to sustainable urban energy include insufficient institutional capacity at the urban level, low awareness and availability of information on renewable energy and energy efficiency, lack of suitable financing mechanisms and lack of collaboration and communication between key stakeholders.
– Further research on the topic should increase understanding on how to overcome the urban energy challenges and provide modern energy services for increasing urban populations in Kenya and other emerging countries in a sustainable manner, says Erika Forstén.
This is critical as energy is not only the largest single contributor to global climate change, but also a critical driver of socio-economic development in emerging countries. Future growth of global energy demand will predominantly come from cities in developing and emerging countries, while Sub-Saharan Africa is among the most rapidly urbanising regions of the world, which also experiences the lowest levels of access to electricity.
This article develops an analytical framework for modelling the complex interactions between circular economy business model activities and the features of diverse institutional operating environments. Developed framework combines business model conceptualization with institutional theorization to understand how institutions influence on business conduct. Business model concept is used to describe organizational activities and managerial cognition in a structured manner and institutional theory is used to identify features that may facilitate or hamper particular activities in a particular operational environment. Countries’ institutional environments related to the advancement of circular economy differ from each other and therefore comparison between the situations provides an interesting context to study the dynamics between companies’ business models and the institutional features. We apply our analytical framework to a case study of two recycling companies operating in Finland and Chile to explore links between the firm-level activities and developments outside the firm. The results highlight the interdependent nature of the relationship between the business models and context-specific institutions, the logics between positive and negative value materials, and the differences between countries in the promotion of circular economy.
New Global researchers Jarkko Levänen and Marleen Wierenga and professor Minna Halme participated to Academy of Management (AoM) conference in August.
AoM is the largest and the most important conference in the field of management and organizational studies, http://aom.org.
Project manager Jarkko Levänen presented his paper on sustainable forestry, and doctoral candidate Marleen Wierenga hers on effectual innovation processes. Both of the papers were well received and the audience provided the researchers with valuable feedback.
The paper by Minna Halme, Samuli Patala and Laura Albareda won the Best International Paper award. Their victorious paper explores the governance of circular economy systems through three case studies in Finland, Spain and USA. The authors develop a framework for how governance of circular economy systems develops towards a polycentric model that enables effective sharing of resources.
In recent years, frugally-designed solar microgrid electricity services have emerged to meet the need for affordable, reliable electricity services in rural India. However, despite the life-changing benefits of these services and overall customer satisfaction, uptake remains lower than expected. Recent thesis by Lindsay Simmonds investigates this phenomena from a human centered design perspective, to examine the role design can play in improving the long-term sustainability of these services.
In January the newly found Aalto Community of African students ACAS organised an event ‘Get to Know Africa’. The event gathered students from different faculties and from 9 different African countries. New global project specialist Emma Nkonoki was onstage sharing her experience in working with projects in East Africa as an African living in Finland. She told how students can get involved in different activities concerning their countries of origin while they are here in Finland. She stressed the importance of being curious and active in following up what Finland is doing with students’ countries of origin including attending relevant events for networking purposes.
Aalto Community of African Students (ACAS) organises or facilitates events that are aimed at helping the students of African origin to successfully integrate and find fulfilment in their studies at Aalto University. The purpose of the association is to bring together Aalto University students of African origin and those interested in the continent in order to promote general knowledge about African culture as part of the diversity of the University. Furthermore, the association supports its members’ interests and development in their careers and studies through collaborating and sharing ideas on business, technology and volunteering. ACAS’ future plans include more events as a continuation to the theme of Get to Know Africa. The next event will introduce others to the various types of foods from the continent with the event Get to Know African Foods. More details on this will be posted on the ACAS website and social media pages – so follow them on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter, as there will be limited spaces. In addition to ACAS’s own events, they are looking forward to collaborating with other organisations in their upcoming student’s programme and organising events together with a uniting idea of building more bridges between Finland and African countries.
Team New Global contributed strongly to East Africa Day, a special one-day training event conceptualised and produced by Aalto Global Impact. The first event was organised at Design Factory on Otaniemi campus on 12 January 2018.
As an academic guest Sara Lindeman (New Global, Aalto University) discussed with Eija Ranta (Development studies & Social anthropology, University of Helsinki) the market context of Easter African communities and the current trends in sustainable development, including the increased engagement and role of the private sector. Both researchers highlighted the need for systemic change and a balance between an accountable state, a free civil society and a responsible private sector to achieve development goals. The discussion also touched upon power relations and how a human rights-based approach could contribute to development by emphasising participation and accountability.
Jarkko Levänen moderated a session with entrepreneur panelists: Jussi Impiö (Fuzu, Demos Helsinki), Mari Martikainen and Minna Impiö (Mifuko), Jymy Parhiala (Nanomaji) and Saija Hollmén (Ukumbi/Hollmen Reuter Sandman architects). The panelists brought to the table a wide range of expertise from non-profit, entrepreneurship, research and business development perspectives, and shared their lessons and best practices from Eastern Africa. The panelists advised the audience to go about their work with respect, humility and trust/reliance on local expertise, while observing the nuanced differences of local contexts and being aware of the possibility of unexpected consequences/impact of the work.
Emma Nkonoki held an expert presentation on culture and practicalities. Emma shared her best tips on social interactions, foods and culture, transportation, health and safety, providing an invaluable perspective of a person intimately familiar with both Tanzanian and Finnish cultures.
Doctoral defense: Sustainable development in emerging markets requires active and reformative market organizing
Sustainable development refers to a balans between the social, ecological and economical. In her doctoral dissertation “Early-phase market organizing in subsistence settings”, Sara Lindeman studies how informal trade in urban slum areas is gradually organized into markets. The empirical work is done in East-Africa, India and Brazil. The studies examine when market organizing can lift people out of poverty, and provides insight into market organizing for sustainable development at large.
”Established economic theories claim that markets are best organized through a en “laissez-faire”- attitude. My research shows empowerment of disadvantaged groups to actively participate in market organizing processes is necessary for sustainable development”, says Lindeman
Current power strucures benefit from the fact that market organizing processes tend to remain invisible and unspoken. This makes it more difficult to do the reforms of the economic system that are needed for sustainable development. Lindeman develops conceptual tools to understand and influence market organizing at an early stage.
”Path dependence is strong in market organizing. Steering the process towards greater power-distribution and sustainable development from the outset is easier that changing established institutions. There is a potential for innovative and sustainable market organizing in emerging markets”, says Lindeman.
Sara Lindeman, + 358 50 448 5040
Researcher and project manager, Aalto New Global
The research is based on several ethnographic studies and published in three journals. The public defens takes place on Friday the 19th of January, 2018, as part of Marketing research at Hanken School of Economics.
New Global is a partner for Slush GIA (Global Impact Accelerator) programme. The purpose is to support impact startups and showcase the exciting business opportunities in emerging markets, which are also vital for implementing the Agenda 2030 and solving complex challenges.
During the Slush week 40 team from around the world will develop their businesses further. This morning Sara Lindeman and Tatu Lyytinen coached the teams understand and communicate their existing, augmented and extended impacts on the surrounding world.
The Centre for Frugal Innovation in Africa organized an international conference titled “Frugal Innovation for Sustainable Development” in Leiden this week. The conference consisted of academic paper presentations but also key notes and practitioner presentations.
On the first day of this two day conference, professor Minna Halme and researcher Marleen Wierenga (presenting in the picture) presented their papers. Minna talked in her presentation about co-creation by multi-sector groups and the collective sense-making needed for joint action. In the Q&A session, the audience wanted to know about practical ways helping actors to believe in each other’s knowledge, the actors that should participate when co-creating for inclusive business and collaborative sensemaking of co-creators as a condition for developing successful frugal innovations.
The presentation of Marleen was about grassroots entrepreneurship and the scaling process of these enterprises. There was a lively discussion after the presentation about the role of patents, the definition of scaling in this context and whether grassroots entrepreneurs should even scale.